History of Islamic Iran explained in 2020
History of Islamic Iran explained the Iranian plateau bastion of mighty empires for millennia the Elamites needs Persians Hellenistic Seleucids Parthians and Sicilians all built venerable empires each assimilating and building upon the technological organizational.
And cultural achievements of the former the last three of these great empires rivaled the Roman Empire and waged bitter wars against it in a series of never-ending stalemates resets and standstills over a period lasting more than 800 years.
This ancient rivalry ended with both great civilizations being unexpectedly overwhelmed by the Arab Russia and caliphate the Roman Empire managed to survive in a diminished form while nearly all of Persia was absorbed into the caliphate the W dynasty claiming descent from the Sasanian Shahs held out as an independent bastion for a Runyon’s estrogen faith for more than a century they repulsed a major Umayyad invasion in 716 AD the Umayyads had established their dynasty’s leadership over the Muslim world.
After the first Muslim civil war of 661 Iranian conversions to Islam was a lengthy process taking several generations within the caliphate for the first few centuries of Islamic rule the population of the Iranian plateau remained overwhelmingly.
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So a stream the Abbasid Caliphate toppled the Umayyads in the Abbasid revolution and ten years later in 760 they would conquer the w8 kingdom the Caliph its Iranian population played a pivotal role in the overthrow of the Umayyads and the Abbasid period was marked by a reliance on Persian bureaucrats for governing the conquered territories during this time the majority of the Caliphate converted to Islam.
Persian at customs were broadly adopted by the ruling elite who became patrons of artists scientists and scholars throughout the Empire the seventh opposite caliph al Mamoon whose mother was Persian commented the Persians ruled for a thousand years and did not need us Arabs even for a day we have been ruling them for two centuries and cannot do without them for an hour less than 30 years after his death the warlord yeah cabal Safar a Persian coppersmith from a small town in what is now Afghanistan rebelled against the Abbasids conquering a large portion of their empire.
He was a recent convert to Islam he and his successors avidly promoted the Islamic faith alongside Persian language and culture throughout their short-lived but pivotal Empire shortly after this Safford territory was cannibalized by two Iranian dynasties the daily mite breeds and the laminin Empire both revived the use of the Persian language in-state use and revived Sasanian court customs using the titles Shah and Sean Shaw King of Kings the buds claimed descent from the Sasanian Shan job around the 5th and for a short time.
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Were considered the leading power in the Islamic world the salmonids spent great sums patronizing science and literature as the bullion’s and at its height it was said their capital of Bukhara rivaled Baghdad in its glory and scientific achievement as the laminin Empire became ever more cultured and wealthy they began to employ slave armies of Turkic origin this would be their own undoing and them were overthrown by a family of Turkic slave guards the Ghaznavids these Turkic slave soldiers turn Sultan’s fully assimilated in a Persian culture with such enthusiasm.
That they outdid their ethnically Iranian counterparts the Boyens in the Jazzanova roll core Tundras of Persian poets were employed to compose some paid to travel the Empire promoting Persian literacy large libraries were built an agent sent to purchase and catalog Persian books and manuscripts within and beyond the Empire’s borders to the north the Seljuk Turks a nomadic people living on the periphery of the Muslim world by the 11th century had converted to Islam.
And an estimated 40,000 Seljuq families migrated from their ancestral homelands on the steppe into mainland Persia in less than 20 years these skilled horse archers would completely demoralize and defeat the Gazan amid military many times their size utilizing hit-and-run tactics and taking the building capital of Baghdad the alien Roman Empire was their next target hunkering Asia.
Minor in the Livan like the Ghaznavids before them these nomads quickly became Persian eyes in culture although not an administration in contrast to the highly centralized build in Gaza if it states the massive Seljuq empire was divided among squabbling family members who acted as autonomous rivals as often as members of the same state during the crusades to retake the holy land the Seljuq Turks were more concerned with their own dynastic rivalries than cooperating against the crusaders or rival.
Fatimid or later I Ubud caliphates the incessant squabbling of the Seljuqs left them vulnerable their Empire eventually fractured and they were replaced in Iran by the Korres Mian Empire established by the son of a Turkish slave turned governor appointed by the Seljuks in the mid 13th century Corazon was overwhelmed by the Mongol Empire the largest contiguous Empire in history as Iran.
Was recovering from the brutal conquest and destruction of several of its ancient cities under the rule of khanate successor state in the 1330s outbreaks of the Black Death ravaged the Empire in 1335 they’ll connect began to disintegrate rapidly and split up into several smaller rival successor states of the Mongols out of this chaotic patchwork of states arose the Turco Mongol warlord team or also known as Tamerlane.
He would unite the former states of the ilk on it and envision himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and while not descended from Genghis he regarded himself at Genghis Azera and arguably surpassed him in brutality of his conquests putting entire metropolis to the sword and was known for building mountains of humans calls as much as he was known.
For the obliteration of ancient cities, he was a patron of the Arts and Persian culture scholars artisans and architects were spared in his vast conquest taking them back to his capital of Samarkand to beautify that city during the reigns of Timur successors the imperial court became increasingly virgin eyes and Islamized until it bore no resemblance to their Mongol ancestors by the Year 1500 the Timurid empire had fractured into several squabbling factions and the Shia Safavid Empire established itself in the aftermath of this collapse it was led by Shan Shah Ismail the first who claimed direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad under the Safavids the economy was fuelled by stability.
Which allowed trade to thrive the Safavid military was one of the first in the world to fully exploit the use of gunpowder and were long able to maintain the integrity of the Empire’s borders from the encroaching Ottoman Turks it was the Safavids who made Iran the spiritual passion of Shia Islam and this period is considered to be a high point of cultural achievement in a high standard of living in 1736 the Safavids were overthrown by the Turkic general Nader Shah a brilliant military commander often compared to Napoleon and Alexander the orphan son of a herdsmen he rose to become one of the most powerful men in the world history of Islamic Iran.
After a dynasty was greatly reduced in power after his assassination in 1747 and would remain an autonomous region within the followings and dynasty that ruled Iran for a short but prosperous period where patronage for painters was emphasized they were overthrown by the Kjar dynasty of Turkic origin who like most dynasties since the 11th century rose to power with the backing of Turkic tribal forces.
While using educated virgins in their bureaucracy and after a series of wars with the Russians and British empires in the 19th century the Empire ceded territory to its north and east and was brought approximately to its current modern borders with the Russian conquest of the former Silk Road to China and Britain’s control of the Persian Gulf trade to India the Persian economy entered a long slow period of decline and the state went nearly bankrupt despite these setbacks the Kjar State adapted massively slashing government expenditures across the board and investing heavily in the modernization of the country the Shahs increasingly fell under the influence of Britain and Russia and a resentful populist instituted a constitutional monarchy and Parliament after the Iranian constitutional revolution during World War One.
Persia was occupied by Russia Britain and the Ottoman Turks further increasing foreign influence and in February 1921 Reza Khan commander of the Persian Cossack Brigade staged a coup d’etat and established himself as Shah of Iran by 1951 the Shah was increasingly regulated to merely being a figurehead at the time seventy-five percent of Europe’s oil came from Iran the company that would become British Petroleum took the lion’s share of the profits and gave a stipend to the Shah who is increasingly seen as a puppet of Britain the Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh tried to negotiate a 50/50 split of oil profits with the oil company.
This was flat-out refused frustrated Mossadegh then campaigned to nationalize the oil company and in 1953 it was nationalized that same year in the partially Declassified operation Ajax the CIA overthrew Maquis ahead and installed the Shah as a Supreme Leader of Iran he let British oil do as it pleased and ruled with an iron fist his secret police rounded up thousands he would be overthrown in 1979 by the Ayatollah Khomeini initially promising the uphold democracy and not to impose any strict Islamic law immediately after Iraq invaded Iran in 1980 in response to Iran’s support of Shia dissidents it is estimated that over 1 million casualties were inflicted over the course of this lengthy war during the war the clerical rule in Iran.
Became increasingly authoritarian the war ended in a stalemate both sides claiming victory with neither of the countries gaining territory the Islamic Republic of Iran today is home to over 80 million people and remains at the heart of geopolitical events this has been up a meatiest and I hope you have enjoyed this overview of Iranian history if you did I think you’ll also enjoy the history.